Updated in 2563 : on 2020 : 1 : 7 : Algorithm: Method & Data Structure ;
IFF code (snippets) also see: keyword;
The most challenging development is algorithm development. Because 1 algorithm relates to N software / hardware. Algorithms are language independent, therefore controlflow, dataflow, logicflow, etc. of algorithms can be presented in any type / form of languages. Depending on organization's internal policy, algorithms can be worth tons of gold, or algorithms may be free to public;
Approx. 61 logical knowledge are available to read;
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Functional 
Name 
Note 
WHEN you no longer know WHERE the (particles) ... ;  Baoding Liu  UNCERTAIN PROGRAMMING, computer programming, ISBN 0471359947, 2000; 
CLR reusable concurrency
To do parallel computing, for multiprocessors / multicore architecture; 
MSDN
Await;
MSDN Barrier; MSDN BlockingQueue; MSDN BoundedBuffer; MSDN CountdownLatch; MSDN LockFreeStack; MSDN Parallel.ForAll loop a.k.a. Partition Loop Tiling; MSDN Reduce; MSDN SpinWait; MSDN ThinEvent; 
For Microsoft .NET Framework only; [MSDN
Magazine; June 2007] Also see: Reduce in sysDevelopmentAnalysis.htm; MSDN; 
Combinational circuits; recursive search  D  Testing algorithm; Dalgorithm [1 gate at 1 time] requires longer testtime than FAN, PODEM, ... ; 
Combinational circuits; recursive search  FAN  Testing algorithm; 
Combinational circuits; recursive search  PODEM  Testing algorithm; 
Determine structural proteins  Ab Initio  Method by molecular dynamics physics and sequence data; [www.osakau.ac.jp/eng/research/report/vol4/graphics/02.html] 
Gene coding  Genetic Algorithm  Constraint handling; Functional evaluation; Method; Operational crossover; Operational mutation; Optimization; Procedure; Process initialization; Process selection; Structural representation; [Uncertain Programming; Baoding Liu; 1999] 
artificial intelligence keyword  Michio Kaku  Pg. 108, PHYSICS OF THE IMPOSSIBLE, MICHIO KAKU, 2008, wrote: "Imagine that you are sitting inside the box and you don't understand a word of Chinese. Assume you have a book that allows you to rapidly translate Chinese and manipulate its characters. If a person asks you a question in Chinese, you merely manipulate there strange looking characters, without understanding what they mean, and give credible answers. " ... 
Kinetic energy at temperature T in a material  Metropolis  Algorithm; Also see: Simulated Annealing Method; 
Ndimensional molecular movement  Monte Carlo aka Stochastic simulation  Method: For predicting protein structures; Can be used in bioinformatics, nuclear physics, and ... ; Materials engineering characteristics; also see: Extreme DA; 
Numerical integration  Euler  Method: 2D; F(x,t) by Time; For modeling and simulation; Can be used in bioinformatics, voice pattern matching, and ... ; Also see: Random call parameter; 
Numerical integration  RungeKutta  Method: 2D; F(x,t) by Time; For modeling and simulation; Can be used in bioinformatics, voice pattern matching, and ... 
Numerological dimension  OS.TXT; BASIC.HTML;  AI OS; Distance in time aka Quality; 
To access indexes 
ISAM 
In database, to index keys and pointers of records 
To do reductions 
Binary operator Average Binary operator Count Binary operator Max Binary operator Min Binary operator Sum 
N to 1
entity relationship; Not 1 to N; Not N to N; Also see: Aggregate function parameters, which might be opposite to manifold, because differentiable cannot define reduction; Average is (x,y)=>new{x[0]+y, x[1]+1} where selection (x)=>x[0]/x[1]; Count is (x,y)=>x+1; Max is (x,y)=>x>y?x:y; Min is (x,y)=>x<y?x:y; Sum is (x,y)=>x+y; 
To either queue or stack 
DEQUE 
Can apply LIFO, FIFO at both ends; Also see: enqueue, and then dequeue; 
To find an element in a list 
Hash Search 
Hashing is efficient 
To link nodes together 
In tree, nodes can be classified 3 different categories – child node, parent node, and root node; IFF numerological dimension, also see: C Sequence Number ... ; 

To list 
Linear List 
To be in order linearly 
To list elements

In any order, elements can be added to a list, or elements can be removed from a list; [List applies pointer. Therefore, multiple types of data can be grouped together as a whole, and then pointing to each wholes (data structure) becomes list.] 

To list nodes [Singly: A pointer to node where the node itself contains datastructure and then the pointer is assigned into another pointer which points the next node] 
Linked List [Doubly: A queue can be implemented, if an element of the queue is a pointer to an array, and then multiple arrays can be linked, but calculate the buffer for memory constraints – leaks can occur] 
A pointer is needed for singly linked list; Two pointers are needed for doubly linked list 
To queue in FIFO order 
Elements in a queue become data structure 

To represent a data 
An entity in a data set 

To represent a Node 
Root 
The highest uppermost node of a tree 
To represent dataelements in a record 
Field 
Each field stands for a data type, and different data types can be assigned into fields 
To represent elements 
A location in a tree 

To represent Node 
Leaf 
Node ≡ Leaf End of a brunch is called Leaf; IFF a curve terminates at both ends, also known as folium, and the IFF time, uncommon Leaf behaves as loop; 
To schedule events in time 
Scheduling 
One of the OS features; System time oriented, and applied in timely events applications 
To search 
Binary Search In heap, tail recursive consumes more memory space than embedded recursive search [pg. 144145, Sethi, 1989] 
The dataitem to be searched should be known; In software engineering, mem leak can occur, if not checking the possible recursive quantities. Because each recursive call takes mem space 
To search elements 
Branching by nodes provide path to find an element 

To search sequentially 
Linear Search 
If a list is short, it is recommended to use, otherwise it will slow 
To sort  Sort  Regardless of whether literally or figuratively, only alphabetical sort and chronicle sort exist; 
To sort 
Shell Sort 
Created by Donald Shell; To order data 
To sort 
Insertion Sort 
Not recommended to sort arrays; Recommended to sort linked lists 
To sort 
Merge Sort 
Recommended to sort when numbers of sortedlists merge into a sortedlist 
To sort 
Quick Sort 
Efficient 
To sort 
Exchange sort to a list; For example, Bubble Sort Sample, by Sun's Forte for Java, Community Edition v.1, 2000; 

To sort 
Binary Tree 
Each node must contain an unique key 
To sort 
Heap Sort 
Efficient; i.e. Repaginating by MS Office 
To sort 
Radix Sort 
Same as Digital Sort; efficient 
To sort 
Digital Sort 
Same as Radix Sort; LSB is sorted first 
To stack in LIFO order 
Stack; In Win OS, i.e. %PATH%\ipsec6 /? <enter> 
Addresses of procedures, addresses of functions, variables and parameters are pushed and popped; 
To store 
FRAM 
Record of data by magneticferric oxide 
To store database indexes 
B Tree 
In database, specified row or record can be found quickly by its index 
To structure different kinds of data 
Record 
Data type of elements must not be the same like array 
To structure same kinds of data 
Data type of elements must be the same; Also see: Static control array; Dynamic control array; 

To transform 
Between mapped numerical value into correspondent data 

To use memory portion [Lexical scope is not Microsoft standard, it is AT&T standard] 
[If available, all buffers out of lexical scope must be checked before compilation] 
Only in a run time, by blocks, by a program 
To verify digital signature 
SHA, Secure Hash Algorithm

Compute 160 bits to hash; also called Message Digest; To secure senderreceiver’s message or data 
To multithread 
Threaded Tree i.e. after 5 is inserted, if the LEAF points to 70; after 70 is inserted, if the LEAF points to 9; after 9 is inserted, if the LEAF points to 81 
If a leaf is a pointer, pointing to a node in a tree; Read Diagram: Binary Search Tree, Insertion first; 
2D 01 to sort [Think of CNumber 360˙ Tree here later how to relate to 2D Radix 2] 
Your own sorting algorithm; Note for Asimo Ukon heuristic reasoning: searching without sorting can also be considered heuristic; 
The fastest 2D radix 2 algorithm; Create the 2D radix 2 algorithm, and prove that it is the fastest 
Basic understanding of logic for novice programmers: Syntax vs. Semantics; Hardware makes software deployable; Data types in programming languages; Also see: Code Shortcuts; Script; Wireless;
Brunch, a.k.a. brunching: leaves must not link to each other, even though root may be the same; i.e. file sharing;
Linked List Structure: ;
Pointer a.k.a. PTR: In programming, a memory address; In AD, resource record's [i.e. such as: AD DC RR SRV service locator record, CNAME record, MX DNS RR, SOA RR, ... ] 1 pointer maps 1 IP address into FQDN;
Push vs. Pop compares to Put vs. Take Remember: Time . Space . Action, oriental thought;
WHEN PUSH to be kept / saved / stored / ... , and then WHERE POP to be deployed / referenced / used / ... , so that FIFO, LIFO, ... can be understood;
WHEN PUT to be placed with flag, and then WHERE TAKE to be taken away with flag, so that flag, mutex, semaphore, ... can be understood;
Stack: FIFO, and LIFO are Linear / Sequential / Series / Not random, can perform static behavior and dynamic behavior; Dynamic / Random stack is rarely seem, but essential in nama programming & AI, should not be in static behavior; Also see: Queue;
...